Title IX was implemented in 1972 to counter discrimination against women. This included women throughout various levels and systems including athletics. Title IX states that in order to receive federal funding assistance, programs and organizations must ban sex discrimination in order to do so. While Title IX has progressed participation rates of girls and women in sports, it has done little to increase and elevate women in leadership positions. Despite an unprecedented amount of women participating in college sports, women are not provided the same opportunities to chase positions in sports administration or coaching (Lanser, 2017). There have been almost no benefits for women in sports leadership positions such as athletic directors, coaches, trainers, and athletic faculty representatives. Although Title IX has increased participation, many obstacles remain for women in athletics. The purpose of this study is to provide depth and context to women’s experiences of sexism within high level sports organizations. Participants in this study were employed across a wide range of collegiate athletics and professional sports organizations. Although the participant pool was diverse and covered a wide range of positions of leadership, findings indicated that experiences of sexism were similar and consistent amongst participants.


Master of Arts (MA)

Degree Date


First Advisor

Kate B. Borsig

Document Type