The World Health Organization states antimicrobial resistance is the ability of a microorganism to stop an antimicrobial from working which results in ineffective treatment and persistent infections. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2017) reported that in the year 2015, 269.4 million antibiotic prescriptions were written in the outpatient setting, and approximately 30% of antibiotics written are unwarranted. Of those cases, most patients receive an antibiotic related to acute uncomplicated bronchitis, pharyngitis, or rhinosinusitis. The CDC reported that Americans spend nearly $11 billion yearly on antibiotics alone. However, up to 50% of all antibiotics prescribed are not indicated or optimally effective which eventually leads to resistance. Antibiotic resistant infections are associated with loss of productivity, poorer health outcomes, and greater healthcare costs. The CDC launched The Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work campaign in 2003 which aimed to direct appropriate antibiotic use (CDC, 2017). Within this campaign, the CDC provides outpatient regarding condition, epidemiology, diagnosis, and management for providers to follow for appropriate prescription. The purpose of this study was to determine if primary care providers in Mississippi are following the CDC Adult Treatment Recommendations for antibiotic use in the treatment of acute uncomplicated bronchitis, streptococcal pharyngitis, and acute unspecified pharyngitis (CDC, 2016). The researchers collected data in six rural clinics across Mississippi. This study consisted of a quantitative, retrospective chart review with descriptive statistics. A convenience sampling of 582 charts were obtained for the retrospective review. For data collection, the researchers used a data collection tool which included information related to age, gender, insurance, title o f provider, and diagnoses related to the current research and CDC Adult Treatment Recommendations. Prior to conducting the study, consent was obtained from the Institutional Review Board (IRB) at the Mississippi University for Women. After data collection, data were subjected to analyses using descriptive statistics including, but not limited to, frequency, distributions, and percentages. The findings suggested that primary care providers in Mississippi are not consistently following the CDC Adult Treatment Recommendations for acute pharyngitis and uncomplicated bronchitis.


Master of Science in Nursing (MSN)


Graduate Nursing

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First Advisor

Dr. Suanne Davidson

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