A core concept in society is health. The concept of health can be defined by each individual with qualifiers such as good, bad, reasonable, or poor based on a variety of factors such as age, gender, current conditions, past conditions, or the demands of various roles in society. Health has been defined as, “a state of physical, mental, and social functioning that realizes a person’s potential” (Greiner, Fain, & Edelman, 2002, p. 6). The importance o f health promotion as a concept has been researched and defined throughout history. Early theories on health promotion or disease prevention began by Florence Nightingale during the 1820s. Florence Nightingale, who is the matriarch of modem nursing, believed preventive medicine and health promotion were prominent in Nightingale’s conceptualization o f a good health care system. These ideas are reflected in Healthy People 2010, which is a comprehensive set o f disease prevention and health promotion objectives for the United States. The goals are to increase quality and years of healthy life and to eliminate health disparities (U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2000). The United States’ health care system has been described as complex and fragmented with large gaps in certain segments o f the population. M en’s health is one area that needs more attention. “Men’s particular health needs, experiences, and concerns frequently are not integrated into existing health care delivery systems” (Porche & Willis, 2004). Moreover, the current level o f nursing knowledge regarding the role of the nurse practitioner in men’s health promotion is limited. For too many years the medical community has fallen behind in the health promotion o f men. Clinical significance regarding the role of the nurse practitioner in promoting health for men is and should be focused on the need for cost-effective, high-quality care. Males are not just biologically different from females; males differ in their behaviors and the risks taken in life. Nola Pender’s Health Promotion Model will be utilized to form the foundation for this research project. According to Pender, health promotion is motivated by the individual’s desire to attain well-being. She believed that the optimal goal o f nursing was optimal health for the individual. Using an Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) approach, which is based on the work of Sackett, Richardson, Rosenberg, and Haynes (2000) will be used for this project. EBM is the integration o f clinical expertise, patient values, and the best evidence into the decision making process for patient care. The patient brings to the encounter his or her own personal and unique concerns, expectations, and values. Data-based and theory-based literatures as well as randomized control trials were compared with practices in place today. The key findings and recommendations can be used in by nurse practitioners in men’s health promotion and disease prevention. The need for further research and role development by nurse practitioners is critical for the advancement of men’s health issues in the primary care setting. Implications for nursing theory, advanced nursing practice, nurse practitioner education, nursing research, and health policy are provided as they emerge from the concepts explored.


Master of Science in Nursing (MSN)


Graduate Nursing

Degree Date


Publication Number


First Advisor

Robert Swanson

Second Advisor

Dr. Rebecca Cagle

Third Advisor

Dr. Sandra Kirkland

Document Type


Included in

Nursing Commons