Cardiovascular disease (CYD) is the single leading cause o f death and a significant cause o f morbidity o f American women. Despite years of research and compelling data indicating that CYD is largely preventable, alarming trends in the prevalence and management o f risk factors in women continue to occur. In 2005, the estimated direct and indirect cost o f CYD was $393.5 billion (American Heart Association [AHA], 2005). Despite the fact that CYD kills more women per year than the next six causes of death combined; only 13% o f women consider CYD to be their greatest health risk (AHA, 2005). Educating the healthcare provider, as well as the patient, is key to women adopting the necessary lifestyle modifications. According to Mosca et al. (1999), a 1995 Gallup Survey demonstrated that four of five women and 32% o f their primary care physicians did not know that CYD was the leading killer o f American women. The purpose of this Evidence Based Practice (EBP) project was to develop an Advanced Practice Nurse (APN) knowledgebase regarding cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. A Boolean computer search o f healthcare literature utilizing CINAHL, MEDLINE, and the COCHRANE Library was conducted for this review. The research questions asked were as follows: 1. What is the level of nursing knowledge regarding CVD in postmenopausal women? 2. What are the Evidence-Based Practice guidelines for the cardiovascular healthcare of postmenopausal women? 3. According to the literature, what is the role o f the Nurse Practitioner (NP) in the management o f CVD in postmenopausal women? Nola J. Pender’s Health Promotion Model served as the theoretical foundation for this clinical project and guided the systematic review through data collection of the healthcare literature. A knowledgebase of findings was developed according to the template developed by Davidson (2003). EBP guidelines regarding the cardiovascular healthcare o f postmenopausal women were presented. Implications and recommendations for nursing theory, nursing research, advanced nursing practice, nurse practitioner education, and health policy are encouraged from the ideas explored.


Master of Science in Nursing (MSN)


Graduate Nursing

Degree Date


Publication Number


First Advisor

Robert Swanson

Second Advisor

Dr. Sandra Kirkland

Third Advisor

Dr. Janice Unruh Davidson

Document Type


Included in

Nursing Commons