Clients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) often experience an associated anemia which has been attributed to an endocrine deficiency of erythropoietin. The purpose of this descriptive, retrospective study was to describe the characteristics of the effectiveness of erythropoietin (EPO) therapy on the anemia associated with ESRD. The research question generated was how effective is EPO therapy in the treatment of the anemia in clients with ESRD in Mississippi? Orem's Self-Care Model was the theoretical framework used for this study. The sample (N = 100) consisted of 55 males clients and 45 female clients from an ambulatory dialysis unit in Northeast Mississippi. The clients were receiving dialysis and EPO therapy. The researcher designed an instrument for data collection. Demographic findings, blood pressure, and blood transfusions were analyzed using descriptive statistics, including means, percentages, and frequencies. A paired t test was utilized to analyze the statistical significance between pretherapy and posttherapy hematocrit data. Findings indicated a significant increase in hematocrits at one month posttherapy, t = -4.12, p < .05; 3 months, t = -7.45 p < .05; and current levels, t = -8.58, p < .05. The mean baseline hematocrit was 24.56, and the mean current hematocrit was 29.79. Blood pressures did not increase, t = 21.25, p > .05. The mean pretherapy systolic blood pressure was 169.57, and the mean posttherapy systolic pressure was 153.63. The mean diastolic blood pressure was 101.33, and the posttherapy mean diastolic pressure was 86.86. This study did not show a significant decrease in blood transfusion requirements. Eighty-eight percent of the clients did not receive transfusions pretherapy, and 79% did not receive transfusions posttherapy. The researcher concluded that EPO is effective in increasing hematocrit levels in the client with ESRD. Similar studies are needed to further document the effectiveness of EPO on the anemia of ESRD in clients in Mississippi. Implications for nursing include the importance of education, documentation, and continuity of care in health promotion and rehabilitation of the client with ESRD.


Master of Science in Nursing (MSN)


Graduate Nursing

Degree Date


Publication Number


First Advisor

Dr. Nancy L. Hill

Second Advisor

Jerri England

Third Advisor

Jusy Stevens

Document Type


Included in

Nursing Commons